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Having been located at the periphery of urban life at the time of their creation, industrial territories, in the course of the active urbanization of the twentieth century, have now found themselves within the historical center. Occupying valuable points of the city, such territories have all the prerequisites to become an important component of its modern life. Unlocking the potential of this resource often plays a key role in the successful future of an industrial area.

Inclusion of the factory in the city routes (pedestrian, tourist, bicycle routes) provides good passability in the territory, increasing the investment value of the site, favorably affecting the economic component of the project. In addition, the territory itself can become a good platform for presentation of rich natural or urban landscape (tower in C-M!NE, Genk). Such a bundle also has a favorable effect on the popularization of the territory.

The quality organization of transport and pedestrian connections between the territory and the city is of key importance. A good result usually requires the inclusion of the area in the city's master plan at the earliest stage of the redevelopment process (Madrid Rio and Matadero Madrid).

The presence of a major public rapid transit stop near the site creates prerequisites for large-scale events and festivals of urban significance (Eindhoven, Netherlands). It is important to create or identify an area marker that will work to promote the project in the urban context, as well as a beacon that will attract people to the area and mark its location in the urban landscape (Finlayson sign in Tampere). Through the project to reorganize the industrial area, it should be open to the public and integrated into the fabric of the city.
In the course of this study, 10 projects of redevelopment of former industrial areas in various cities around the world were analyzed. We identified the key factors that allowed those areas to effectively develop in the realities of modern life and once again become a city’s activity points. Neglecting or ignoring these factors leads to stagnation in the development of a project, or its complete failure. Moreover, this study allowed to better understand the factors that may negatively affect the redevelopment process. Below we have tried to systematize these data and identify the success formula for an effective project of rearrangement of industrial and public areas in a city’s downtown. The impact of certain factors was perceivable in most of the projects. We consider those factors to be the key ones. Other factors, on the contrary, are discerned in only a few projects — such factors are designated as secondary and less significant.
After a Factory
competition 2015
consolidated investment schedule for 10 projects
Research Matrix
Diagrams

A diagram is the best way to depict what is revealed from the data, so many of the data are presented in the form of charts and diagrams. This has proven to be the best way to demonstrate the relationship between them as well.

Analysis

The analysis of each project consists of 4 data spreads. The first spread presents the basic raw numerical data, largely referring to the current situation in the territory. A more detailed breakdown of its structure is presented on the next page.

The second spread presents historical and contemporary photographs of the area to familiarize the reader with what the area used to look like and what it looks like today after the redevelopment process. The third spread contains a history of the territory's development. The timeline shows the key years that influenced the life of the territory, from the establishment of the industrial enterprise, its closure, to the completion of the territory reorganization project.

In addition, this spread also presents data on the anchorages and attractors of the area. The main flagship sites are presented on the page in the fo rm of photos and brief descriptions. Their location is also marked on the general 3d scheme.

The fourth section is an analysis of the project's effectiveness. This section is a more detailed analysis of the stages of reorganization of the territory. The master plan diagrams show the phased development and transformation of specific buildings and workshops. Each diagram has an accompanying text that reveals important data from each stage. Based on this, the key success factors and challenges o f the project have been identified and are reflected at the bottom of the spread. The main outcome of the analysis is the project performance graph. It reflects how the project developed over time, in what year and what event served as an active socio-economic development of the territory, in what year the project declined. It should be noted that not only objective, but also subjective data were taken into account when constructing the graph.
The study is based on a group of 10 implemented industrial redevelopment projects in different cities around the world. The efficiency of the projects was analyzed based on different input data.

Data

The research of each project started with data collection and systematization. It should be noted that all the research data are secondary and are obtained from printed or electronic publications. In the course of the research it became obvious that the reorganization of industrial and communal territories in the historical centers of the world's cities is a very difficult process. In such a case, it is necessary to consider not only objective data but also subjective data. This is often the only way to explain complex things.

An attempt was made to present the data from each project in a standardized form. For this purpose, a research matrix was created, which became the basis and included the full range of data possible. In some cases, some data could not be found, however, the data that was obtained for each project was sufficient to eventually compare and contrast all projects.

Territory area

The land area criterion was taken as the basis. The projects have been considered and located in relation to it. From the smallest area - 77 C&C Park (Beijing) with an area of 0.58 HA, to the largest - 798 ART Zone (Beijing). The area of the territory determines most of all other data: the number of people the territory is ready to host, the amount of investment, the form of management, etc. There is nothing wrong with a large-scale industrial area, but its area becomes an important parameter also in the context of the environment, the city.

Therefore, along with the data for each project, we tried to analyze the context to which the area belongs. We identified those urban changes that have directly influenced the life of the area in question. Including the factor of inclusion of the territory in tourist or urban routes.
It is necessary to take into account that architecture can rightfully be considered a school not only for the education of aesthetic taste, but also a school of life in general. A person from childhood sees it with his eyes and gets along with it, inhales its flavor. It is no secret that old buildings speak more to the mind and heart than new ones. The presence of a dense historical physical framework becomes the foundation of a healthy society that can create new ideas and culture. Old industrial buildings create a special atmosphere imbued with the unique charm of the industrial past, which is increasingly sought after by people.

In addition to being visually attractive and valuable for the local community, the historic buildings of former industrial areas are now becoming a colorful and recognizable backdrop for all kinds of events, festivals and concerts. The background works as a key brand of the territory and attracts new visitors.
Respect for heritage
Cherishing industrial heritage, both tangible and intangible, has become an international trend today. The international community has come a long way through trial and error to recognize this phenomenon as a key asset in the redevelopment process. In many countries, at the first stages of development of the issue of reorganization of large-scale industrial areas, this factor was neglected, preferring to preserve the demolition of old buildings and the creation of new development.

This led to great losses, frustration and total distrust in the hearts of local communities. Today, preserving and revealing the industrial past allows creating a favorable socio-economic atmosphere in the territory. This approach can appear when creating a navigation of the complex. All parts of the factory could be returned to their old names so that the original function of the buildings is known to visitors (Kulturbrauerei, Berlin). The location of machines and devices used in production (TIT, Guangzhou) can also become information anchors.

In addition, the interest in the sphere of industrial tourism is growing every year. A careful approach and correct presentation of such heritage to the public is a guarantee of attracting tourist flow to the territory, which increases the efficiency of the territory utilization, increases the number of its visitors and brings the territory to a new level.
Location in the city
Project Program
In order to breathe new life into the area, it is important to create an effective program. It prescribes the possibilities of filling large vacant industrial buildings and the territory in the realities of the socio-economic environment in which it is located.

It is important to consider how much space and function to allocate to public use, so that the area is not overloaded with functions that will be unused. If possible, some spaces should be left unplanned to allow future generations to develop them.

The program should attract a multi-purpose audience of different ages to the territory. In order to increase the visibility of the territory and social effectiveness of the future space, the project program should take into account various social directions: holding free festivals and events for the local community, providing new jobs.

The most successful is the synthesis of functions within an area. The diversity of people, cultures, ages, and functions provides fertile ground for the creation of new ideas and culture. Such places often become territories of innovation, which creates a very effective socio-economic atmosphere.
Public space
Abandoned industrial areas in the historic city center are, first of all, isolated spaces that are now free of traffic. They are often the only reserve for the creation of new pedestrian zones and public spaces.

Proper planning of the territory can significantly improve transport and pedestrian connections in the city center, the street and road network of which has already been formed and does not imply further changes. Such large clusters, fully dedicated to people and densely saturated with public spaces, are favorable for the historical center.

It is important to have or identify in the structure of the territory a main public square, which is ready to become the face of the project, to host big city events and festivals. The success of such a square lies in its unique, multi-layered industrial background and charm. This component works for the popularization of the territory, the constant presence of people on it, it is reflected in the economic efficiency of the whole project.
Quality of reconstruction
An important factor in the success of a reorganization project is the quality of reconstruction and new architecture in the area. In order to get a qualitatively new space and environment characterized by good taste, it is necessary to involve experienced architects, artists, urbanists.

Decisions should be based primarily on the overall objectives of the area and a strong emphasis on the history of the place. This often leads to exceptional, distinctive ideas that ultimately work for the identity and brand of the territory. Many established industrial redevelopment projects that are effectively developing today have once won various international architectural awards. This well demonstrates the importance of this factor in creating an effective project.
Project management
Contemporary figures, their interpretation of industrial heritage, their vision, and their economic, political, and creative power are often decisive in the utilization of abandoned sites. The outcome is largely determined by who has the power, the intellectual investment, the influence, the energy to present the most reliable program for the development of the territory, who is able to manage the project and the whole complex in the future.

In order not to lose relevance, it is necessary to constantly mobilize all means of the team to renew the territory, create new programs and events, attract new forms of art and urban culture. The end of the redevelopment process is only an intermediate stage in the management system. It is necessary to constantly ensure the competitiveness of the territory, otherwise the project will enter the stage of stagnation and gradually disconnect from the active life of the city.

This will primarily affect the economic side of the process, reducing the turnover of funds and the annual income of the site, which may lead to bankruptcy of the owner (Eindhoven, Netherlands). Therefore, the main work on project supervision starts after the territory is opened to the public.

All kinds of programs are created to promote the project outside the territory (El Ranchito and Archimobile in Matadero Madrid). The team should be in charge of all events, development projects and their implementation. Reliable project support ensures the involvement of the local community in the life of the area, which guarantees its viability.
Project flexibility
The reuse of the industrial past has been made possible by its flexibility, adaptability, and multifunctionality. This flexibility is also essential to cover unforeseen changes in the situation (economic, political, social). A good strategy and an effective redevelopment project should guarantee independence from these external factors and have room for maneuver, the ability to adjust to the new situation.

At all stages of implementation of a long-term project of territory reorganization it is necessary to carry out analytical work of strengths and weaknesses, and to minimize risks to adjust the project, which is what the flexible structure of old industrial buildings allows. The strategies of many projects in the early 2000s were adjusted due to the economic crisis that occurred in 2008.

Many projects were forced to switch to short redevelopment. This form is also very well realized in industrial areas and can guarantee efficient development of the territory with the attraction of a large number of visitors.
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